The degree of support is positive for all the high-income countries, although the level among them varies. The NRA was over 40 percent in 2005, dropping to 22 percent in 2014 and then following a slightly upward trend to 28 percent in 2018 (Figure 7), mainly driven by increasing support in some major economies, including the European Union and the United States of America in the form of budget transfers, and in Japan as price incentives.
Despite the overall declining rates of assistance, most of the public support to individual farmers is mainly provided through price incentives, generally the most distorting type of support (as discussed in the previous section). Within the OECD group, some countries, such as the Republic of Korea, Japan and certain European Union member countries (i.e. Czechia, Iceland and Norway), support their agriculture sector more heavily than others, such as Australia and New Zealand (Figure 8).